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Inequality between the richest and the rest in Malawi continues to rise, with poverty remaining extreme and endemic. Climate change is compounding the challenges, with recent droughts and floods likely to have worsened poverty, resulting in one in three Malawians relying on humanitarian assistance in 2016. Economic inequality threatens to undermine the hard-fought and important progress on some aspects of human development in Malawi.This report presents a vision, roadmap and policy recommendations for a more inclusive, equitable and prosperous Malawi. It shows that inequality is not inevitable but the result of policy choices made by those with power. Breaking out of slow and unequal growth requires government, development partners and institutions to work for all, especially for those living at the margins, rather than serving powerful vested interests.
There is limited research on secondary education in sub-Saharan Africa that explores the key factors which can promote efficient and effective secondary schools. What there is includes IIEP studies by Lewin and Caillods (2001), and the outputs from the World Bank's Secondary Education in Africa programme that includes analysis of costs and efficiency (Lewin 2008). Knowledge gaps remain with the risk that African governments embarking on large scale reforms in secondary education may invest in ways that fail to identify the components of the system and processes that drive efficient and effective delivery of secondary education, and therefore which areas to prioritize investment to achieve universal access. This study of secondary school efficiency and effectiveness in Malawi responds to this gap and provides evidence to inform discussions about key reforms in secondary education to improve quality and equitable access, especially for disadvantaged groups.Using both survey and case study data, the study analysed school efficiency in different types and sizes of secondary schools. The main output measure was final examination grades. For an estimation of inputs, teacher numbers, student-teacher ratio, class sizes, teacher quality (qualified/unqualified), and other infrastructure and material resources in schools was used. The samples sizes for the analysis was based on 88 secondary schools.
This report considers key trends in secondary education in particularly with respect to enrollment and domestic and aid financing from an equity perspective. While many national governments and international donors have shifted their spending from primary to secondary education since the early 2000's, it is evident that unfinished business remains in regards to primary education, with the poorest and most disadvantaged still unlikely to complete the full cycle of primary education. Even when they do, many are not learning the basics, and their chances of transitioning into secondary education is much lower then their more advantaged counterparts. In order for countries to achieve the SDG4 targets by 2030, the way in which governments and international donors disburse their resources will have a huge bearing on countries being on track to ensure no one is left behind.
Carsey School of Public Policy at The University of New Hampshire;
This case study provides an overview of Ziweto Enterprises, a social venture using franchising methodology to scale its growth. The goal of this study is to present a clear picture of how the starting stages of a social franchise can expand and thrive in a developing country such as Malawi. By discussing Ziweto's history, business model, operations, challenges, successes, decision-making process, social impact, and projected future, this case study aims to provide insight into the application of business format franchising to address social problems.
Mathematica Policy Research, Inc.;
There is growing recognition that youth need more than formal or vocational education to thrive in school, work, and life. They also need life skills - a set of cognitive, personal, and interpersonal strengths that position them for success in their lives and livelihoods. To leverage the growing momentum and give youth access to these vital tools for success, the Partnership to Strengthen Innovation and Practice in Secondary Education (PSIPSE) supports grantee partners testing diverse approaches to strengthening life skills. The PSIPSE commissioned an in-depth study of 18 projects in 7 countries, uncovering actionable lessons on how to design, implement, assess, and scale youth life skills programming in low- and middle-income countries. The study is intended for practitioners and government officials interested in building, improving, and expanding work around life skills, as well as donors looking to advance this field and provide useful guidance to their grantees.
Mathematica Policy Research, Inc.;
There is growing recognition that youth need more than academic knowledge and technical expertise to transition successfully into employment and adulthood (Dupuy et al. 2018). They also need "life skills," a set of cognitive, personal, and interpersonal strengths that position them for success in their lives and livelihoods. Life skills can enhance young people's agency and resilience, improve their psychosocial well-being, and predict a range of long-term outcomes, including health, job performance, and wages (Kwauk et al. 2018; OECD 2018; Kautz et al. 2014). The Partnership to Strengthen Innovation and Practice in Secondary Education (PSIPSE), a donor collaborative, has invested in 18 projects that focus on developing life skills among youth (see left). Mathematica, the PSIPSE's learning partner, recently conducted an in-depth study of these projects. The study used interviews with implementing organizations, an extensive review of project documents and evaluation reports, and high-level literature and landscape scans to examine project experiences, set them in context, and draw out lessons for a range of stakeholders. This brief summarizes the lessons for government officials—on how to successfully devise, roll out, scale, and strengthen life skills policies for youth in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs).
Mathematica Policy Research, Inc.;
There is growing recognition that youth need more than academic knowledge to transition successfully into employment and adulthood (Dupuy et al. 2018). They also need "life skills," a set of cognitive, personal, and interpersonal strengths that position them for success in their lives and livelihoods. Life skills can enhance young people's agency and resilience, improve their psychosocial well-being, and predict a range of long-term outcomes, including health, job performance, and wages (Kwauk et al. 2018; OECD 2018, Kautz et al. 2014). The Partnership to Strengthen Innovation and Practice in Secondary Education (PSIPSE), a donor collaborative, has invested in 18 projects to strengthen life skills in young people. This brief offers eight lessons based on the experiences of these projects—on the design, delivery, measurement, and scale-up of youth life skills programming in lowand middle-income countries (LMICs).
Malawi was one of the six countries in which Oxfam's Women's Economic Empowerment and Care (WE-Care) programme was implemented. In its first phase (2014-2016), WE-Care aimed to build evidence to influence policy and practice change around the issue of unpaid care work. In Malawi, three research methodologies were used, including qualitative participatory research and quantitative methods to generate a strong evidence base for awareness raising and policy advocacy at the national and global levels. The programme was designed to be closely linked with the GSM Association's mNutrition programme, which is a three-year multi-country programme, of which Oxfam is part.This report describes the use of information and communications technologies for data gathering, analysis and implementation of a randomized control trial. This aimed to understand the impact that access to mNutrition (mAgri and mHealth) services had on the allocation of time to unpaid care work.
A collection of case studies based on 10 years of research in Malawi, produced by the McKnight Collaborative Crop Research Program's Southern Africa community of practice.
Malawi has a proud history of delivering free healthcare for its citizens, but this is now seriously under threat. Bypass fees for hospitals are already causing major hardship by excluding poor people from accessing the healthcare they need. The Government of Malawi must reject the fees system completely and instead use tax financing and development aid. Development partners must support the health sector with adequate financing to fulfil world leaders' commitment to ensuring that no one is left behind. Malawi cannot be the first country in a generation to introduce these dangerous fees while the world watches.Ã‚Â
This paper provides a brief synthesis of research conducted on gender in irrigation, and the tools and frameworks used in the past to promote improvement for women in on-farm agricultural water management. It then presents results from the pilot of the Gender in Irrigation Learning and Improvement Tool (GILIT) in locations in Malawi and Uzbekistan in 2015. Through the results of the tool, the paper looks at benefit sharing between men and women farmers: (i) access to irrigation scheme resources (including information, for example, in the design phase; land, water and other inputs); (ii) participation in scheme management; and (iii) access to scheme benefits, including access to market information, packaging and payments. The indicators for the tool were modelled after principles reflected in existing gender policies and strategies, and intended to improve performance at field level in line with national and regional goals. The paper concludes with informal and formal constraints to gender-equitable outcomes from irrigation investments identified during the pilot, and suggests how the tool can be used by various development actors to improve the benefits for women from investments in agricultural water management.
Emerging Pathogens Institute at University of Florida;
In order for Malawi to achieve Millennium Development Goal 4, to reduce child mortality by two-thirds before 2015, this report addresses the issue of diarrheal disease by examining the current policy environment in Malawi. By using the UNICEF/WHO seven-point plan for diarrheal disease control as the guiding document, the group identified current strengths and weaknesses, and then collaborated to agree on a set of recommended steps to help re-prioritize diarrheal disease control. The recommendations emerging from this report describe a detailed path for a way forward towards ownership, accountability, and sustainability for diarrhea control efforts in Malawi.